Gender Issues in the Fire Service:
A Bibliography

Affirmative action

"DCFD Affirmative Action Hiring Plan Overturned." Fire Chief, May 1987, p. 28.
"Female Firefighters Decline Affirmative Action Promotions." Fire Engineering, Vol. 145, no. 5 (May 1992): p. 16.
Osby, Robert E. "Guidelines for Effective Fire Service Affirmative Action." Fire Chief, September 1991, pp. 50-54.
Schumacher, Joe. "Affirmative Action Revisited." Fire Chief, March 1989, pp. 51-53.
Slack, James D. "Women, Minorities, and Public Employer Attitudes: The Case of Fire Chiefs and Affirmative Action." Public Administration Quarterly, Vol. 13, no. 3 (Fall 1989): pp. 388-411.

Family issues

"London Fire Brigade Considers Child Care Alternatives." IAFC On Scene (September 15, 1991): pp. 1-2. [Condensed from an article in Women in the Fire Service Quarterly, Summer 1991.]
Willing, Linda. "Love on the Job." Fire Chief, August 1990, p. 92.

Firefighter training and pre-training programs

Bird, James W. "Training Women for the P.A.T." Fire Engineering, March 1991, pp. 87-93.
"Eleven Women Survive NYFD Training Program." International Fire Chief, Vol. 49, no. 8 (January 1983): p. 8.
Larkin, Susan R. "Training for Success." Fire Command, August 1989, pp. 38-42. [Training women for FDNY entry-level testing]
McDonald, Bernie R. "Pre-Employment Training: One Department's Program." Fire Command, August 1987, pp. 24-28. [Louisville Fire Department]
Pletan, Owen D. "A Format for Successful Pre-recruit Training: The Seattle Method." Fire  , Vol. 48, no. 8 (August 1981), pp. 35-37.
"Women's Training Program in Jacksonville." Fire Chief, February 1991, pp. 60-61.
"Women's Training Program Upgrades Firefighting Skills." Fire Chief. Vol. 35, no. 2 (February 1991): pp. 60-61.

Legal issues

"Department of Justice Consent Decree." Fire Chief, July 1987, p. 30.
"Newest Court Ruling Backs Female Hires." International Fire Fighter, Vol. 70, nos. 5-6 (May-June 1987): p. 1.
Rukavina, John. "Fire Service, Meet the ADA." Fire Chief, June 1992, pp. 30+. [Mistitled; actually about the Civil Rights Act of 1991]
Rukavina, John. "Seeing the Future." Fire Chief, September 1992, pp. 22+. [Regarding Pennsylvania State University report on the pending expiration of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act exemption for firefighters]
Schmidt, Wayne W. "Background Investigations." Fire Chief, July 1990, p. 18. [Limits on background investigations in areas such as sexual activity]
Schmidt, Wayne W. "Civil Liability for Wrongful Discharge," Fire Chief, September 1989, pp. 26+.
Schmidt, Wayne W. "Nepotism and Consanguinity Relations." Fire Chief, February 1985, p. 14. [9th Circuit affirms lower court ruling that one employee may be required to transfer or quitif two employees marry]
Shearer, Robert W. "Can After-Hours Conduct Be Grounds for Firing?" Fire Chief, May 1989, pp. 59-60.
"US Court of Appeals Throws Out FDNY Scoring System." Fire Chief, May 1987, pp. 14-15.

Physical fitness and physical abilities testing

Bell, Laura. "Where Does Physical Testing Leave Women?" Management Review, December 1987: pp. 47-50.
Clark, Allen. "Female Firefighters Not the Issue - It's Physical Fitness." Fire Chief, Vol. 35, no. 10 (October 1991): p. 22.
Davis, James E. "A Look at Performance Standards." Fire Chief, August 1991, p. 56.
Doolittle, T.L. "Validation of Physical Requirements for Firefighters." Seattle Fire Department, Office of Management and Budget, Seattle, 1979.
Evans, D.H. "Height, Weight and Physical Agility Requirements." Journal of Police Science and Administration, December 1980, pp. 414-436.
FEMA/USFA, Physical Fitness Coordinator's Manual for Fire Departments, 1990.
"Fire Chiefs and Physical Abilities Testing." WFS Quarterly, Vol. X, no. 3 (Summer, 1995): p. 2.
Floren, Terese M. "Physical Abilities Testing: No Easy Answers." WFS Quarterly, Vol. IX, no. 3 (Summer, 1994): pp. 1-3.
Floren, Terese M. "Scoring Systems for Physical Abilities Tests." WFS Quarterly, Vol. X, no. 3 (Summer, 1995): pp. 1-2.
George, Arthur E. "Only One Standard." Fire Engineering, Vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 37-38.
Kay, Herbert. "Testing Recruits." Fire Chief, April 1989, pp. 70+.
Misner, J.E., S.A. Plowman, and R.A. Bioleau. "Performance Differences between Males and Females on Simulated Firefighting Tasks," Journal of Occupational Medicine, 29, (1987), pp. 801-805.
Rafilson, Fred M. "Legislative Impact on Fire Service Physical Fitness Testing." Fire Engineering, Vol. 148, no. 4 (April 1995): pp. 83-84.
Schmidt, Wayne W. "Physical Fitness Standards." Fire Chief, July 1989, p. 42. [Legality of employment requirements restricting body fat]
Williams, Timothy, & S. Evenson. "Physically Fit For Duty? By Whose Standards?" Fire Chief, March 1988, pp. 43+, April 1988, pp. 58+, May 1988, pp. 55+.


Enbysk, Liz Peeples. "First Female Fire Chief in Paid Position." American Fire Journal, Vol. 35, no. 10 (October 1983): p. 14.
Hirschman, Jessica. "Climbing the Glass Ladder - Part II. Firefighter's News, Vol. 11, no. 3 (June-July 1993): pp. 44-47.

Protective clothing

Duffy, Richard; J. Sawicki, and A. Beer. "Project FIRES: Final Report." International Association of Fire Fighters, 1985.
Floren, Terese M. "Survey Results: Protective Gear Fit." WFS Quarterly, Vol. XI, nos. 3 & 4 (Summer & Fall, 1996).
Luckey, Julie. "NIST Workshop on Protective Gear." WFS Quarterly, Vol. XI, no. 4 (Fall, 1996): pp. 1-4.
Neeves, R., et al.,"Physiological and Biomechanical Changes in Fire Fighters Due to Boot Design Modifications." International Association of Fire Fighters and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, 1989.
Sylvia, Dick. "New Turnout Gear, Women's Roles Among Topics at IAFC Conference." Fire Engineering, Vol. 131, no. 11 (November 1978), pp. 58-62.

Recruitment and Retention

Bifano, Angie. "Firefighter Selection Today: The Problem of Balancing Legal, Social and Occupational Safety Issues." Firefighter's News, Vol. 9, no. 5 (August-September 1991): pp. 48-50.
Booth, Walter. "Recruiting Women and Minorities." Fire Chief, May 1987, pp. 49-53. [Survey of large fire departments regarding their recruitment strategies]
Brown, Marsha D. "Getting and Keeping Women in Nontraditional Careers." Public Personnel Management Journal, Winter 1981, pp. 408-411.
Durkin, Edward D. "Recruiting and Hiring Women Firefighters." Fire Chief, May 1981, pp. 52-55.
Floren, Terese M. "Starting Out as a Firefighter." WFS Quarterly, Vol. IX, no. 3 (Summer, 1994): pp. 5-9.
Goldfeder, William. "Retaining and Recruiting Members." Fire Engineering, May 1992, pp. 10-13.
Hammond, Ken. "Recruiting Women Firefighters." Fire Chief, October 1987, pp. 40-41.
Makela, William. "Women Taking Up the Slack in Recruiting." Minnesota Fire Chief, Vol. 27, no. 1 (September-October 1990): pp. 12-13, 59.
Marinucci, Richard A. "Attracting Recruits: A Matter of Image." Fire Engineering, July 1991, p. 10. [Recruiting volunteer firefighters]
Sanders, Jo Schuchat. The Nuts and Bolts of NTO: How to Help Women Enter Non-Traditional Occupations. Scarecrow Press, 1986.
Scotford, Garth. "Program Revealed Problems in Attracting Women Recruits." Fire, Vol. 82, no. 1019 (May 1990): p. 9. [Letter to the editor.]
Thaut, Stanley L. "A History of Tacoma's Effort to Recruit Women Firefighters." Fire Chief, Vol. 23, no. 9 (September 1979), pp. 40-43.
Waters, Michael S. "The Recruitment and Retention of Women in the Career Fire Service." International Fire Chief, May 1986, pp. 14-17.
Waters, Michael S. "The Recruitment and Retention of Women in the Career Fire Service, Part II. International Fire Chief, June 1986, pp. 18-21.
Waters, Michael S. "The Recruitment and Retention of Women in the Career Fire Service, Part III. International Fire Chief, July 1986, pp. 20-23.
Willing, Linda F. "Rethinking Recruitment." WFS Quarterly, Vol. IX, nos. 2 & 3 (Spring & Summer, 1994).

Reproductive safety

Dixon, Ernest M. "Reproductive Disorders of the Male/Female Worker: Occupational Placement of Women of Reproductive Capacity - Views of the Medical Community." Occupational Safety and Health Symposia, 1978, pp. 27-28. Cincinnati, Ohio: U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1979.
Evanoff, Bradley A. and Linda Rosenstock. "Reproductive Hazards in the Workplace: A Case Study of Women Firefighters." American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 9, no. 6 (1986): pp. 503-515.
Fischer, David R., William A. Jones, Charles A. Lacroix, Clay A. Phillips, Perry E. Ray, and Timothy P. Travers. “Written Policies and Pregnant Firefighters.” Emmitsburg, MD: National Fire Academy, June 10-21, 1991.
Floren, Terese M. "Firefighting and Reproductive Safety: A Policy Update." WFS Quarterly, Vol. X, no. 1 (Winter, 1995): pp. 1-5.
Infante, Peter F. "Reproductive Disorders of the Male/Female Worker: Occupational Placement of Women of Reproductive Capacity - OSHA's View." Occupational Safety and Health Symposia, 1978, pp. 29-30. Cincinnati: U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1979.
McDiarmid, Melissa, M.D., et al.,"Reproductive Hazards of Firefighting I and II." American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 19:433-472 (1991).
Olshan, Andrew F., K. Teschke, and P. Baird. "Birth Defects Among Offspring of Firemen." American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 131, No. 2, pp. 312-321.
Stellman, Jeanne M. "Reproductive Disorders of the Male/Female Worker: The Effects of Toxic Agents on Reproduction." Occupational Safety and Health Symposia, 1978, pp. 16-26, Cincinnati, Ohio: U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, June 1979.
Templeton, Randy. "Pregnant Firefighter." Fire Chief, Vol. 36, no. 4 (April 1992): pp. 116-118, 120.

Sex discrimination / sexual harassment

Barron, Donna. "Men, Women and Harassment." Emergency, Vol. 20, no. 7 (July 1988): pp. 31-35.
Blackistone, Steve. "Sex Discrimination." Firehouse, Vol. 15, no. 11 (November 1990): p. 69.
Blackistone, Steve. "Sexual Harassment in the Firehouse (Fire Law column)." Firehouse, Vol. 17, no. 4 (April 1992): pp. 90-92.
Beekman, Peter and Allen Fankhauser. "Like It or Not, Sex Is Here to Stay." JEMS, Vol. 16, no. 1 (January 1991): pp. 13-14.
"Cleveland FD Charged With Discrimination." International Fire Chief, Vol. 50, no. 2 (February 1984): p. 10.
Farley, Lin, Sexual Shakedown: The Sexual Harassment of Women on the Job, McGraw-Hill, 1978.
"Firefighters Transferred in Queens Sex-Bias Case." Fire Control Digest, Vol. 17, no. 11 (November 1991): pp. 6-7.
Justice Actions." Fire Chief, November 1986, p. 25. [Charleston, WV, Police Department ordered to reinstate dispatcher fired when she became pregnant]
"Justice Department Acts in Discrimination Cases." Fire Chief, July 1985, pp. 8-10. [Deletes numerical hiring goals implemented in 1977 consent decree in San Diego]
"Justice Department Sues City." Fire Chief, November 1991, p. 38. [Dept. of Justice alleges discrimination against white men when West Palm Beach directed the hiring of minorities and women to fill twelve vacancies]
MacKinnon, Catherine A. Sexual Harassment of Working Women.. Yale University Press, 1979.
McQueen, Iris. "Sexual Harassment." Fire Chief, August 1985, pp. 69-72.
Moore, Thomas V. "Sexual Harassment in the Firehouse?" Firehouse. Vol. 10, no. 18 (August 1985): p. 14.
Naczi, Frances D. "Removing Sexism From Communications." Fire Chief, November 1984, pp. 45-46.
Paludi, Michele A., and R.B. Barickman. Academic and Workplace Sexual Harassment,.State University of New York, 1991.
Petrocelli, William, and B.K. Repa. Sexual Harassment on the Job,.Nolo Press, 1992.
Randleman, William."What is Discrimination?" Fire Chief, November 1984, p. 27.
Schmidt, Wayne W. "Sex Discrimination. "Fire Chief, Vol. 26, no. 4 (April 1982): p. 16.
Schmidt, Wayne W. "Quotas and Other Discrimination Remedies." Fire Chief, April 1985, p. 14.
Schmidt, Wayne W. "Sexual Harassment." Fire Chief, October 1986, pp. 14-15. [U.S. Supreme Court decision in Meritor v. Vinson; also Indiana case where judge found sexual harassment but not sex discrimination]
Schmidt, Wayne W. "Sexual Harassment." Fire Chief, February 1987, p. 27. [Appeals court reversal of lower court decision that failed to find harassment evidence of discrimination]
Schmidt, Wayne W. "Sexual Harassment." Fire Chief, December 1991, p. 30. [Women police officers]
Schrader, George."Avoid Sexual Harassment Hassles." Fire Chief, June 1990, pp. 47+. [Sexual harassment not an issue of sex but of power and control; recent court cases]
"Sex Discrimination." Fire and Police Personnel Reporter, August 1984, pp. 13-15.
"Sexual Harassment." Fire and Police Personnel Reporter, October 1986, pp. 12-14.
Shouldis, William. "Sexual Harassment." Fire Engineering, September 1991, pp. 101+.
Siegel, Deborah L. Sexual Harassment: Research and Resources. National Council for Research on Women, 1991.
"Utah Women Win Harassment Suit." WFS Quarterly, Vol. XII, no. 2 (Spring, 1997): pp. 8-9.
Webster, Cindy."Facing Off On Sexual Harassment." Fire Chief, August 1992, pp. 72-77.

Supporting workforce diversity

Brightmire, Susan. "Diversity." Fire Engineering. Vol. 148, no. 1 (January 1995): p. 117-118.
Briese, Gary. "The Challenge of the '90s: Prepare for the 21st Century." The Minnesota Fire Chief, Vol. 28, no. 4 (March/April 1992): pp. 14-15.
Johnston, William B. Workforce 2000: Work and Workers for the 21st Century. Hudson Institute, 1987.
Loden, Marilyn, Workforce America! Managing Employee Diversity as a Vital Resource, Business One Irwin, 1991.
Macklin, Victoria S. "Peer Mediation Helps Heal a House Divided." NFPA Journal, May-June 1991, pp. 62-66.
Simons, George. Working Together: How to Become More Effective in a Multicultural Organization,.Crisp Publications, 1989.
Simons, George, and D. Weissman. Men and Women: Partners at Work. Crisp Publications, 1990..
Smith, Michael H. "Communications Skills for a Changing Fire Service." Fire Chief, September 1991, p. 82.
Sturzenacker, Gloria. "Prejudice Prevention." Chief Fire Executive, April-May 1986, pp. 43-51.
Tannen, Deborah. You Just Don't Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. Ballantine Books, 1990.
Tannen, Deborah. Talking From 9 to 5. Ballantine Books, 1995.

Volunteer firefighters

Cashman, John R. "Gal Fire Fighters Do What's Needed in Brigade Too Small for Specialists." Fire Engineering, Vol. 132, no. 12 (December 1979), pp. 14-16.
Chambers, Mary D. "Volunteer Fire Chiefing." International Fire Chief, August 1980, p. 15.
Marinucci, Richard A. "Women in the Volunteer Fire Service." Fire Engineering, January 1991, pp. 10-12.
Mitchell, Carol Ann. "A History of Service: Women in Volunteer Fire Companies." California Fire Service, Vol. 2, no. 6 (June 1991): p. 24.
Perkins, Kenneth B. "Volunteer Fire Fighters in the U.S.: A Sociological Profile of America's Bravest." National Volunteer Fire Council, 1987.

Women firefighters

"All Female Fire Brigade." Rekindle. Vol. 14, no. 9 (September 1995): p. 5.
Beaver, Don. R and Jerry Knapp. "Women in the Fire Service." Fire Command, Vol. 51, no. 8, p. 15.
Casey, Jim. "Women Fire Fighters Are Here to Stay." Fire Engineering, Vol. 131, no. 3 (March 1978), p. 6.
Chambers, Mary D. "Women in the Fire Service." Western Fire Journal, April 1981, p. 40.
Chapman, Brenda J. "Women in the Fire Service: Do We Belong?" Voice, Vol. 20, no. 5 (May 1991): p. 11.
Chetkovich, Carol. Real Heat: Gender and Race in the Urban Fire Service. Rutgers University Press, 1997.
Clayton, Bill. "Female Inmates Work as Wildland Firefighters." American Fire Journal, Vol. 36, no. 10 (October 1984): 45-46.
Cridland, Elizabeth. "Ideas for Increasing Women's Role in Fire Service Voiced at Seminar." Fire Engineering, Vol. 134, no. 4 (April 1980): pp. 28, 30.
DeMars, Denise. "What's the Big Deal? (Thoughts of an Individual Fire Fighter)." Fire Command, Vol. 51, no. 8 (August 1984): p. 23.
Dernocoeur, Kate, EMT-P, and James N. Eastman, Jr., ScD. "Have We Really Come a Long Way? Women in EMS Survey Results." JEMS, Vol. 17, no. 2 (February 1992): pp. 18-19.
Dessoff, Alan L. "Female Inmates: No-Holds-Barred Brigade." Firehouse, Vol. 48, no. 8 (August 1981), pp. 35-37.
Feldman, Danah. "Wildland Fire Fighting." International Fire Chief, Vol. 46, no. 8 August 1980, pp. 16-17.
Floren, Terese M. "1990 Survey Results." WFS Quarterly, Winter 1990-1991, pp. 14-17.
Floren, Terese M. "Women Firefighters: The Chief's Role." Fire Chief, May 1981, pp. 48-51.
Floren, Terese M."Women Firefighters Speak: A Survey of the Nation's Female Firefighters." Fire Command, December 1980, pp. 22-24 and January 1981, pp. 22-25.
Granito, Dolores. "More Women Entering Fire Service." Fire Engineering, Vol. 131, no. (March 1978), pp. 29-30.
Hallinan, Lorin. "Breaking the Barriers." Emergency, Vol. 26, no. 5 (May 1994), pp. 32-37.
Hamilton, Jo Carol. "Women in the Fire Service." Fire Chief, Vol. 22, no. 8 (August 1978), pp. 81-84.
Istvan, Sharon. "Fire Protection Engineering." International Fire Chief, August 1980, p. 21.
Keene, Kathy. "What Is It Like To Be a Female Firefighter?" Fire Chief, September 1991, pp. 72-74.
Keller, D. F. "Women Prisoners Protect Facility, Serve Outside Area." Fire Engineering, Vol. 132, no. 8 (August 1979), p. 124.
Knapp, Jerry and Don R. Beaver. "Women in the Fire Service: Two Views" Fire Command., Vol. no. 8 (August 1984): p. 15.
Lipkin, Harriett. "Smoothing the Way for Women." International Fire Chief, August 1980, pp. 22-24.
Love, Myron. "Still a Tough Job, But No Longer a 'Man's' World'." Fire Fighting in Canada, Vol. 36, no. 2 (March 1992): pp. 6-7.
"Niche Jobs Can Be Found for Women." Fire, Vol. 82, no. 1018 (April 1990): p. 25.
"Oregon Volunteer Firefighter of the Year: Captain Mary Lou Fletcher." Fire Command, September 1988, p. 6.
Orr, Robert. "Women's Work?" Fire Prevention, no. 244 (November 1991): p. 10.
Pantoga, Fritzie. "Women Firefighters - A Survey." Fire Chief, January 1977, pp. 51-54.
Perkins, Kenneth B. "Women in the Ranks." Firehouse, Vol. 8, no. 3 (March 1983), pp. 49-50.
Quinn, Richard C. "First Woman Fire Fighter." Fire Command, Vol. 47, no. 9 (September 1980), p. 29.
Roche, Diane C."Public Fire Education." International Fire Chief, Vol. 46, no. 8 August 1980, pp. 20-21.
Rudder, Beatrice. "Career Fire Fighting." International Fire Chief, Vol. 46, no. 8, August 1980, p. 16.
Rule, Charles H., R. E. Osby, J.H. Steffens, and M.R. Rakestraw. "Workforce 2000." Fire Chief, January 1991, pp. 36-40.
Senk, Terry A. "The Firefighter is a Lady." The Voice, Vol. 20, no. 4 (April 1991): pp. 8-9.
Sexson, Margarita Y. "Fire Departments Surveyed on Employment of Females." Fire Engineering, Vol. 134, no. 6 (June 1981): pp. 48-49.
Smith, Dennis. "Women in the Fire Service." Firehouse, Vol. 8, no. 2 (February 1983), p.5
Summers, Liz. "We're Here To Stay: Reflections of a Woman in the Fire Service." The Voice, Vol. 24, no. 5 (June 1995): pp. 41-42.
Swartout, Robert. "Women Fire Fighters: The Seattle Concept." International Fire Chief, August 1980, pp. 10-11.
Thompson, F. McKeen. "Woman's Place." Emergency, Vol. 19, no. 4 (April 1987): p. 4.
Townley, John P. "Hiring Women Fire Fighters Opposed." Fire Engineering, Vol. 131, no. 3 (March 1978): p. 33.
Walker, Leslie. "A Firefighter Like You." The Voice, Vol. 24, no. 5 (June 1995): pp. 43-44.
Wasylyk, Sylvia. "Women in the Fire Service - Issues and Answers." The Voice, Vol. 23, no. 8 (September 1994), pp. 38-41.
Wauls, Bonita. "The Battle's Over." Fire Command, Vol. 51, no. 10 (October 1984): p. 6. [Letter to the Editor.]
Webster, Cindy. "First National Conference of Fire Service Women." Fire Chief, February 1986, pp. 44-47.
Winkle, William, and R. Navarre."Females in the Fire Service: The Process of Acceptance." Fire Chief, April 1985, pp. 68-69. [How the Toledo Fire Department integrated women into its ranks]
"Woman Loses 9th Try to Join Fire Department." Fire Control Digest, Vol. 17, no. 1 (January 1991): p. 10.
"Women Are Fire Fighters, too!" Fire Command, February 1976, pp. 16-19.
"Women in the Fire Service." Fire Chief, May 1981, pp. 48-51.
"Women in the Fire Service: The Challenge in America." Fire International, Vol. 7, no. 73 (Dec. 1981): pp. 41-43.
"Women Firefighters Still Struggle." Fire Chief, Vol. 31, no. 3 (March 1987): p. 6.
Women's Issues Advisory Committee. Guidelines for Integration of Women into the California Fire Service. California Fire Fighter Joint Apprenticeship Program, 1990.
Ziolkowski, Heidi M. "Vying for a 'Man's Job' Now More Than Wishing on a Star." Western Fire Journal, Vol. 35, no. 8 (August 1983): p. 5.


Buchbinder, Laura B. and Carol Vougioukles. "Fire Administration Initiates Women's Program." International Fire Chief, Vol. 46, no. 8 (August 1980), pp. 12-13.
Burton, Mike. "In a Family Sort of Way." The Voice, Vol. 24, no. 5 (June 1995): pp. 17-20.
Craig, Jane, and R. Jacobs. "The Effect of Working with Women on Male Attitudes toward Female Firefighters." Basic and Applied Psychology, March 1985, pp. 61-74.
Deasy, M. "One Size (Does Not) Fit All." Firehouse, May 1988, pp. 33-36.
Devlin & Associates, Employment Equity Reference Manual for Ontario Municipal Fire Departments, prepared for the Office of the Fire Marshal, Ministry of the Solicitor General, 1991.
Fire Department Personnel Management Handbook. Managing the Entry of Women and Minorities. Washington, D.C.: FEMA, 1982.
Guidelines for Integration of Women into the California Fire Service. CA: California Fire Fighter Joint Apprenticeship Committee's Women's Issues Advisory Committee, 1990.
Managing Fire Services. Ronny J. Coleman and John A. Granito, Eds. pp. 230-231, 266-269. Second ed. Washington, D.C.: International City Management Association, c. 1988.
Martin, Molly, ed. Hard-Hatted Women,.Seal Press, 1989.
McCarl, Robert. The District of Columbia Fire Fighters Project: A Case Study in Occupational Folklife. Smithsonian Institute Press, 1985.
McNichol, J., and S. Scanlin. "Proceedings of the National Firefighter Health and Safety Forum." Congressional Fire Services Institute, 1991.
Navarre, Raymond J. "Developing a Stress-Reducing Fire Station." Fire Chief, February 1987, pp. 46-48.
Paradigm, Inc. Issues for Women in the Fire Service. Washington, D.C: U.S. Fire Administration, September 1980.
Stress Management: Model Program for Maintaining Firefighter Well-Being Washington, D.C.: FEMA, 1991.
Thomason, Betsy. "Self-discovery: A Way to Deal With Stress." Fire Chief, February 1991, p. 25.
Tokle, Gary. "1001 Considerations." Fire Command, April 1989, pp. 24-25.
Turner, Gary. "Butting Heads over Change." Chief Fire Executive, January-February 1987, pp. 27-30.
Vonada, Michael. "Shadow Dancing." Fire Chief, December 1987, p. 50.

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